Admin Note: I belong to a circle of close friends who all have very strong opinions on the gaming industry. Because of this, you should be seeing a number of posts from other authors coming down the pipe here. I’m very excited about the possibilities here—perhaps eventually we’ll operate our very own gaming editorial site.
In the meantime, I’m proud to present our first guest poster: my brother, William Monroe, from H. T. Parnell’s.
Though I haven’t touched on it much recently in my writings, (aside from a few scattered comments about Super Street Fighter 4 on H. T. Parnell’s) I’ve been thinking a lot more about some of the old discussions I’ve had about gender roles in games. The conclusion we seemed to come to, amid much discussion, is that there are two separate problems at play here:
First, the overall dearth of female characters in games, particularly ones that are portrayed as capable of engaging in the same activities as men with the same level of skill.
This strikes me as a larger umbrella issue that contains the issue of patriarchy that was brought up re: Super Street Fighter 4. Women are less common (in games) than men, because men are seen as the norm, so that the variation of including a female character is something that must be both explained and reigned in, as to not be too unusual. Addressing the overall problem may not address some of the co-morbid issues, but it’s certainly a place to start.
Second, the overall dearth of emotional qualities that have historically been considered “female”.
This is particularly sticky, however, because by describing these as qualities as “female”, I am implying that they should be embodied, mostly, by female characters. Doing so would be the fastest way to solve the actual physical gender imbalance without actually helping the problem in any way. Not unlike trying to push for civil rights by giving a lot of work to Stepin Fetchit, and even then it’d probably be worse, cause there’s something to be said for being the first African American actor to ever be given a screen credit.
Even discussing this issue is a little troublesome, though, because it’s so easy to accidentally jump horses mid discussion, and to start discussing the specifics of people, as opposed to looking at platonic forms of female and male. That is, if you think that such platonic forms exist/are meaningful concepts. I tend to think they’re helpful for discussions of narrative, but trying to prove that they are is clearly beyond the scope of this particular discussion. Suffice it to say that I believe that they are. Perhaps I’ll diatribe about why at some point.
This issue is also difficult, because it’s more insidious and subtle than the problem of “Over 80% of game characters are male”. This problem (as is the case with all problems of equality, if you get down to it) starts in the culture. America, and to some degree Western Europe (though less so) has always greatly valued physical prowess, self-determination, and the ability to pull yourself up by your bootstraps no matter what, even so much as to be to the detriment of qualities like endurance, intuition, and being conciliatory.
The real heart of this second problem is that games buy into a mentality in which a “male” way of acting is considered positive, and a “female” way of acting is considered negative or irrelevant. This is partially because of overarching cultural factors, and partially because games in particular have always been based almost exclusively on these traditionally “male” activities. So, before we get too deep into this, what the hell am I talking about?
In the Jungian sense (as well as the ancient Chinese philosophy sense), activity is considered to be an essential male characteristic, while passivity is considered to be an essential female characteristic. There’s a valid epistemological question as the core of this, to ask whether “not doing something” can be a valid descriptor, but suffice it to say that Taoism, for one, sidesteps this issue entirely.
Taoism, which focuses heavily on the interplay of gender as amorphous characteristics, largely detached from any instantiation, believes that the essential female characteristic is “wei wu wei”, or “action without action”. The comparison is made to water, which, while soft and yielding, is capable of overcoming virtually any obstacle, and shaping things otherwise thought unassailable, like earth and stone. Taoism submits that the universe has a natural order, and that by acting in step with (and being lead by) the natural order, not only does one achieve more satisfaction, but one is also more effective at accomplishing their goals. (As a purely academic concern, it also proposes that this is the ideal way for everyone to act, but still identifies it as inherently female)
I’m not here to speculate about the truth of this theology, other than to say that I believe there is some non-zero amount of validity to this way of acting: action based on sensitivity to surroundings, and non-attachment to the results of said actions.
Whether or not these qualities represent something inherently “female” is an epistemological gender studies question that I have no interest in tackling. I am much more interested in the relative lack of these qualities, and others like them in games. For lack of a better term, and wanting to avoid overstepping the purview of this article, I shall refer to these qualities as “wei wu wei”.
A previous essay I wrote posited that most main characters of video games are extensions of the typical male action hero. Gears of War, Devil May Cry, Borderlands, Left 4 Dead. Even Gordon Freeman, while more nuanced, is basically that archetype. While trying to gender these characteristics is probably a mistake, we can all agree that the laundry list looks something like this:
- Physical Prowess
- Willingness to use physical force in order to accomplish one’s goals (usually noble)
- Courage and adherence to goals in the face of overwhelming odds
Plus many others, I’m sure. Don’t get me wrong; these are all awesome characteristics. I really kind of enjoyed that Marcus Fenix and his squad getting swallowed by a worm the size of Rhode Island occasioned no more pause from him than “Well, then we gotta cut our way out!”
But characteristics like intuition, social graces outside of the context of manipulation, sensitivity to surroundings, nurturing, and willingness to stay in step with the natural order (or even fightingfor the natural order) are all characteristics that are all markedly different than, or, in some instantiations, even directly opposed to, the list above.
The problem, as has been elucidated before, is that it’s pretty easy to make a game about “you did this awful thing to me, so I’m gonna beat up you and all your cronies”. Making a game about building relationships, synthesizing disparate pieces of information, or achieving success by gaining immunity to the throes of gain and loss of daily life are all… a little less unclear. I think a game could be made out of these principles, but no one can submit that it would be less challenging to create than a beat’em up.
Now, if we’re discussing real life, obviously a mix of all of these qualities are necessary to be a functional human being, but this is not so in games. The world of Gears of War is constructed so that Marcus Fenix needs to embody all of the action hero characteristics to succeed. The problem is partially the characters, where no one is creating characters that embody these wei wu wei characteristics, but it’s also that before the characters even are introduced, the game mechanics and the story frame success and failure in terms of your ability to succeed at those very particular kinds of action hero tasks. When you get swallowed by a giant worm, it’s undeniable that the appropriate response is to try and get out. To do anything else would mean failure of the challenge set before you.
And that’s just the point: games are almost universally about events to which the only appropriate response is to be an action hero. Just putting in characters that embody this kind of wei wu wei thinking wouldn’t do anything, because they would be monumentally ineffective, unless a conscious effort was expended to make it not so. This isn’t because the action hero is the baseline, and variance must be accounted for, but just because that kind of mentality is so ingrained into the game industry.
This is to say nothing of the difference between valuing wei wu wei in story vs. valuing it in gameplay. JRPGs have done a decent (or at least the best available) job of emphasizing the value of wei wu wei in story, but at the end of the day, 70% or more of your interaction with the game consists of you fighting people for the purpose of ending their life or preserving your own. So you’re left with a poor choice at the end: do I have a final confrontation that doesn’t reinforce the message (the value of wei wu wei), or do I have a final confrontation that the player cannot meaningfully participate in? Obviously, the stakes of the fight are greater than just preserving your own life, but if the final victory is still won by the action of killing the bad guy…
Final Fantasy 6 errs on the side of the former: While you are fighting for the preservation of life, and the ultimate validity of human existence, Kefka can’t be brought into the fold of Terra’s quasi-Gaia worldview, and so needs to be fought and killed for the safety of the planet and its population.
Xenogears errs on the side of latter: While you fight and beat the boss, the planet is still more or less screwed until Elly steps in, who manages to save the day, ultimately by forgiving the villain, and making him understand the value of her worldview.
So… how can the action of “making someone understand the value of your worldview” be made into an engaging game mechanic?